Writing Tips for Papers. The general format of the manuscript should be as follows: title of article, names of author, abstract, and text.

The ABSTRACT should not have more than 120 words in length, covering(1) a statement of the background situation that led to the development ofthe manuscript; (2) a clear statement of the problem or the basic issuesinvolved; (3) a brief summary of the key findings or conclusions of theresearch; and (4) a brief description of the methodology used.

Whenever possible, the text discussion should be divided into suchmajor sections as INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, and REFERENCES. Manuscripts should be submitted typed, double-spaced, on one side only. The entire typing area on the title page should be four and one-half inches wide by five and one-half inches long. The major headings should be separated from the text by two lines of space above and one line of space below. Each heading should be in capital letters, centered, and in bold. Secondary headings, if any, should be flushwith the left margin, in bold characters, and have the first letter of all mainwords capitalized. Leave two lines of space above and one line of spacebelow secondary headings. All manuscripts should be left- and right-handmargin justified.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS of collaboration, sources of research funds, andaddress changes for an author should be listed in a separate section at theend of the paper after the section on References.

EXPLANATORY FOOTNOTES should be kept to a minimum and benumbered consecutively throughout the text and aggregated in sequenceunder the heading NOTES, at the end of the text but before REFERENCES.The REFERENCES section (APA style) serves to provide the reader withsufficient information so that he or she can easily locate the work cited inthe research. Overall, each reference should include the followinginformation author(s)’ name (first name, middle initial, and last name); titleof work; journal, serial, proceedings, or book in which the work waspublished; volume and number of the issue [example: volume 1, number 1would appear as 1(1)]; date the work was published; page numbers (in thecase of journals, serials, and proceedings).

Paper Preparation Guidelines. The general format of the manuscript should be as follows....

The deadline for Abstract/Paper Proposal Submissions (IPPC9) is 20th December 2023